Distribution Transformer Construction

Distribution Transformer Construction

The distribution transformer is known as a step-down transformer. This kind of transformer uses to decrease the voltage. The distribution transformer supplies L-T connections. There are many kinds of distribution transformers for their use.

The distribution transformers are classified to their mounting location, type of insulation, number of phases, and voltage class. This article will narrate the construction details of the distribution transformer.

Construction of Distribution Transformer

Everything’s work efficiency depends on its input value and construction. To get the maximum output from a device, it should be constructed on a well-planned method. We know the distribution transformer is an electric device, and it performs well without moving.

For this reason, it is a static device. Some of the distribution transformers look so big, and some are not. Many parts combine with the transformer tank to form a complete distribution transformer.

Parts of a Distribution Transformer

A complete distribution transformer built up with many parts. All of the parts play an essential role in its activity. Now given a list of the parts of the distribution transformer.

  • Tank (contains transformer’s main body)
  • Core
  • Windings
  • Conservatory oil tank
  • Insulating oil
  • Pressure release device
  • Buchholz relay
  • Breather
  • Oil indicator
  • Temperature detector
  • Thermal relay
  • Radiator
  • Bushes
  • Oil inner valve
  • Oil drain valve
  • Tap changer
  • Cooling tubes
  • Cooling fan
  • Wheels

Below is given a picture of a distribution transformer to understand all the parts better:

Circuit Diagram of a Distribution Transformer

A distribution transformer is a step-down transformer that’s said before at the top of the blog. The circuit diagram of a distribution transformer is very simple. The main working functions depend on the distribution transformer’s core and windings as the distribution transformer is a step-down transformer, so the primary windings are more significant than the secondary windings.

This transformer converts high voltage electricity to low voltage electricity. Primary windings are connected with the AC source, and secondary windings connect with the load. Here are the values of winding, voltage, and current:

  • Primary windings Np
  • Primary voltage Vp
  • Primary current Ip
  • Secondary windings Ns
  • Secondary voltage Vs
  • Secondary current Is

The circuit equation of the distribution transformer is Np/Ns=Vp/Vs=Is/Ip
Here is always Np>Ns, Vp>Vs

Through this equation, we can calculate the distribution transformer’s output voltage and current.

Power distribution companies widely use distribution transformers to supply electricity to customers. The transformer works restlessly. So, it was built in a well-planned way. Good use of a transformer can supply power at the maximum rate.


About the Author: Mehedi Hasan

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