What Is Distribution Transformer

What is Distribution Transformer?

A transformer is a device used to convert voltage or current from one winding to another without changing the power and frequency. At present, power generation and distribution companies cannot even imagine transporting electricity without transformers. Many types of transformers are invented for different purposes. A distribution transformer is one of them.

Distribution transformers work on the principle of step-down transformers. This blog will explain what is distribution transformer is and how to use it. Details are given below. Read this blog carefully to acquire knowledge about distribution transformers.

What is a Distribution Transformer?

A distribution transformer works like an isolation transformer and it has also known the same as the kind of this. The main function of the transformer is to convert the high voltage electricity to normal voltage like 120 to 240 volt. The distribution transformer performs continuously to distribute the power in the Palli area of a country.

Types of Distribution Transformer

There are many kinds of distribution transformers for their working purposes. Distribution transformers are divided into two parts based on the phages. Their one is single phages and another is 3-phages. In order to distribute electricity, underground, pad-mounted, pole-mounted transformers are available. The whole of the transformer works with the same basis of electromagnetic induction law.

Single Phage

The single phage transformer has two windings. Generally, it saw the top of the pole in the rural distribution area of a country. Here single phages transformers picture is given below:


The 3-phages

The 3-phages transformer looks big and weightful than the single-phages transformer. And here 3-phages transformers picture is given below:

Distribution Transformer Construction

The construction of the distribution transformer is very simple. The main part of a transformer is windings. A single phage distribution transformer has two windings. They are the primary winding and the secondary winding. Other parts of the transformer are used to make an influence it’s working efficiency.

Single Phages Transformers Construction

The transformer tank holds the inner and outer parts of the transformer. The distribution transformers’ shapes are basically rectangles, pole-mounted transformers shapes are round. The transformer fills up with insulating oil. Bushes are used to connect the wire with the AC and load.

3-Phages Transformers Construction

The 3-phages transformers are constructed with the same basis as a single phages distribution transformer. The difference is it has three windings. Its looks are a little bit big than single phages distribution transformer. Sometimes it looks like a power transformer.

Both the single and 3-phages distribution transformers constructions parts are given below:

  • Tank
  • Conservatory tank
  • Breather
  • Buchholz relay
  • Insulation oil
  • Insulating materials
  • Insulating copper coil (windings)
  • Bushes
  • Cooling tubes
  • Cooling fan
  • Thermal relay
  • Radiator
  • Temperature detector
  • Oil indicator
  • Pressure release device
  • Explosion vent
  • Oil inner valve
  • Oil outer valve

Distribution Transformer Circuit Diagram

The circuit diagram of the distribution transformer depends on the primary and secondary windings. The secondary windings are always less than the primary windings in a distribution transformer. The output voltage is lower than the input voltage but higher than the input current.

The transformer doesn’t change the frequency. The primary windings are Np, secondary windings are Np. primary voltage is Vp, the secondary voltage is Vs. primary current is Ip, and the secondary current is Is. All these symbols work through a formula and this is Np/Ns=Vp/Vs=Is/Ip.

In this transformer, Np>Ns, Vp>Vs, and Is>Ip.

Distribution Transformer Working Principle

The working principle of the distribution transformer is very simple. It performs its activity by applying the electromagnetic induction law. It has also known as Faraday’s law. The core and windings are the main parts of the distribution transformers working principle.

The primary coil is wound on the side of the core, the secondary coil is wound on the opposite side of the core. Electromagetive force creates into the core when the primary windings (primary coils) are connected to the AC source.

And this core transfers the electromagnetic effect to the secondary windings (secondary coils) which are connected to the load. The difference in the turn number of the coils is responsible to change the voltage. The primary coils turn number is always greater than the secondary coils turn number in the distribution transformer.

Uses of Distribution Transformer

A distribution transformer is used where needs low voltage. It converts high voltage electricity to low voltage electricity. As like, the urban area, small organization, agricultural functions, residential area, etc. are depends on the distribution transformer to get electricity. The distribution transformer can convert 33kV to 220-440 volts.

Residential, agricultural, some organizational electronic devices can’t work in high voltage. But the power transformer transfers the electric power with the high voltage.

If this high voltage applies on low voltage depended devices then it will damage or can’t work. For this reason, we apply a distribution transformer. It provides low voltage electricity for the purposes.


About the Author: Mehedi Hasan

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