An electrical circuit or electrical network means completing the electrical signal constructively. This process is done through many electrical particles or nanoparticles in critical devices.

A computer motherboard or mobile phone’s motherboard is the perfect example of an electric circuit. The circuit does the whole working process in an electronic device; it’s a part of the very **basic electricity** study.

Table of Contents

## What is an Electrical Circuit?

An electrical circuit is a medium through which electricity can easily pass through a load and perform its function and returns to the source on another path. An electrical circuit contains some active and passive components for completing the circuit process.

## Classification of Electrical Circuit

The electrical circuit is a complex process of **electrical circulation**. Through the systematic way, a circuit can do its electric circulation. Electrical circuits are classified in many ways. Some of the information (basically power source and inactive components) detail is given below:

### Active Network

There is an active voltage source or current in the active network circuit that independently supplies the power to the network. A dynamic network has one or more electromotive power sources. An active network can include a battery or generator for providing the power.

### Passive Network

There is no active voltage source or current in the passive network circuit that independently supplies the power to the network. A passive network has no electromotive power sources. Passive networks consist of inactive elements like resistors and capacitors. A passive network can not include a battery or generator for providing the power.

### Linear Network

The principle of the linear network is, the signs are consist of the superposition. Otherwise, it’s not the linear network; it is non-linear.

### Lumped Network

Inactive components in a circuit, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, are assumed to be lumped together. The location of these passive components in the circuit is called lumped.

## Electrical Circuit Classification by source

In an electrical circuit, power sources are classified in 2 ways. There, one is Independent, and another is a Dependent source.

### Independent** Source**

This type of circuit has an independent energy source, which maintains a certain AC or DC voltage or current value in the circuit. No changes to the connected network will change this value.

**Dependent** Source

**Dependent**

The power source in this type of circuit depends on a specific component. Any change in the connected network can change this value.

## Fundamental Feature of Electrical Network

A typical electrical circuit refers to the structural sequence of many electronic components. These circuits adhere to some basic features. These are discussed below:

- In a circuit, electrons come out of the ascent, cross different paths, and return to the ascent. That is why a circuit is always called a one-way closed path.
- A circuit has at least one energy source that acts as a reservoir of electrons and provides a constant supply of energy to the circuit.
- A circuit consists of unregulated and controlled power sources, resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc.
- Electrons always flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal in an electrical circuit.
- In an electrical circuit, current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal, which means the exact opposite of the electron flow.
- As the current flows in the circuit across different components, the potential voltage drop increases.

## Main Parts of an Ideal Electric Circuit

A typical electrical circuit consists of many parts. Below is a description of its main parts:

- The circuit has at least one electric generator or battery to supply power.
- Electron conductive materials are commonly used to conduct electricity in circuits.
- Power control is very important in the circuit. So there are some controlling devices for this work, such as switches, circuit breakers, MCBs, and potentiometers.
- Various safety devices protect the circuit from accidents, such as electric fuse, MCBs, switchgear, etc.

## Electrical Circuit Analysis

Analysis of voltage and current in an electrical circuit is called circuit analysis. Circuit analysis is performed to determine the efficiency of a particular circuit component.

This figure shows a simple electrical circuit.

- 5-volt battery
- 2 Ω carbon resistor

The current flow in that circuit and the lamp is lit. The bulb here is a resistor indicating a potential V volts drop.

## Types of Electrical Circuit

There are many kinds of electrical circuits. Some of the circuit names are given below:

- Open circuit
- Closed-circuit
- Short circuit
- Parallel Circuit
- Series Circuit
- Series Parallel Circuit

## Design of Electrical Circuit

Any electrical circuit has to be designed in an analog or digital way. All complex circuits require the application of special computer programs or conjecture techniques. Such as Piecewise-Linear etc., models. The designs of some of the important circuits are given below in a phased manner with diagrams:

### Open Circuit

An electrical circuit is an open circuit if no electrical current flows through the circuit due to the disconnection of electrical components or parts.

### Closed Circuit

If the circuit continues to flow continuously from the positive to the negative end without any interruption, then such a circuit is called a closed circuit.

### Short Circuit

If the positive and negative ends come in contact without using resistors in the circuit, then electricity flows uncontrolled. Such a circuit is called a short circuit.

### Parallel Circuit

If all the circuit components’ positive and negative ends are connected to the source in the same way, then that circuit is called a parallel circuit. Electricity does not flow at the same rate through all the components of this circuit, so the voltage drop remains the same.

The total current value can be found by adding the sum of the current flowing through each component. We can calculate the voltage, current, and resistance by the parallel circuits law. The circuit series law is given below.

**V=IR****it=i1+i2+i3+…+iN****1/Rt=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+…+1/Rn**

### Series circuit

When one end of one of the components of a circuit joins the primary end of the other to form a circuit, that circuit is called a series circuit. Current flows simultaneously through the components connected in the series circuit.

When any of the components in a circuit becomes inoperable, the whole system becomes ineffective. According to Ohm’s law, we can calculate series circuits voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R). The formula is** V=IR.**

### Series-Parallel Circuit

An electrical circuit in which both series-connected and parallel-connected electrical components are found is called a series-parallel circuit. In modern times most electrical circuits are series-parallel circuits.

An excellent example of a series-parallel circuit connecting a conductor to a rotor of a DC motor. With the combination of parallel and series circuit law, we can calculate series-parallel circuits everything. The formula is** P= VT= I²R= V²/R.**

## Applying Electrical Law on Electrical Circuit

To this day, many people have worked hard to develop electricity. They discovered many formulas and theorems for electrical linear resistive networks. Some of the important sources are explained in it:

**Ohm’s law:**The voltage product of the resistors of a circuit is equal to the current flowing through it.**Kirchhoff’s law:**The sum of all currents entering a circuit equals the sum of all currents leaving the circuit.**Norton’s theorem:**Any circuit of voltage or current and resistor is electrically equivalent to a standard power source parallel to a single resistor.

## Electric Circuit or Electrical Networks Simulation

More complex circuits can be numerically analyzed using specialized software. Software or software like SPICE or GNUCAP may be helpful.

The software first tries to understand the different formulas and theorems of the circuit, find a solution for a constant state and create a function consistent with the voltage / current equation by controlling the voltage. After creating the function, the operating points of each component are specified. Slightly smaller signals are also analyzed.

Where linear components are lined up to get estimates of voltage and current, the whole process is governed by Ohm’s law. As a result, the linear circuit matrix can be solved with Gaussian elimination.