The Transformers are mainly used to get appropriate voltage. If the supply voltage in the house other factor is, say, 230 volts AC, and the electrical appliance is rated for 110 volts AC, a transformer can be used to reduce the voltage from 230 Volts to 110 volts or vice versa. The size of the transformer will depend on what type of its utilization. The Transformers are used only for AC supply.
The transformers cannot be used to change the frequency of supply, and the design of the transformer is different for different frequencies. Normally, the range of frequencies in the country is sustained in 50 Hertz or 60 for an AC supply. Automatic voltage correction transformers can maintain the suitable voltage of household/appliances where there is a large variation in incoming voltage.
So, it is important to get an idea about how a transformer operates its work. In this blog, the central theme of the working principle of the transformer is given below:
Operational Principle of Electrical Power Transformer
Electrical power transformer operates its action by the “Faraday’s induction law.” Motors, inductors, and generators are run according to the principle of the law. The primary use of an electrical transformer is to change the current/voltage level of an AC electrical signal. It safes electrical instruments from unexpected voltage.
When the primary terminal connects with an AC source, it then creates an EMF (Electromagnetic Force) flux into the transformer. By the fluctuating magnetic field, secondary windings terminals are influenced. This is the main working principle of a transformer.
Transformer increase or decrease the output voltage by the principle by changing the windings turn number of it. If the current to be measured in the circuit is above 30–35 amps. Normally, a current transformer is used, as it is difficult to design an ampere meter for higher AC currents.
The power transformer’s working principle is very simple. Electricity generation plants use many types of transformers—step-Up, Step-Down, isolation transformers, etc. The coil turn number of a transformer is the central fact of the working principle.
If the primary coil turn number is more than the secondary coil turn number, it’s called a Step-Down transformer. This transformer converts high voltage with the low current to low voltage with high current. Electricity distribution companies use this transformer.
If the primary coil turn number is less than the secondary coil turn number, it’s called a Step-Up transformer. This transformer converts low voltage with the high current to high voltage with low current. Electricity generation companies use this transformer. Some of the sizes of the transformers are big. A container contained the whole of the primary and secondary coil parts of a transformer with special oil.
In this figure, one terminal to another during electricity transmission then creates a waste of magnetic flux. It needs to emit outside from the transformer. A ferrite or iron core is used to drop it into the atmosphere. While electricity is transmitted across into the iron core, then the second coil produces an EMF.
A galvanometer observes this force. The galvanometer works automatically with some standard criteria. If the meter permits to transfer of EMF power, then the transformer will be activated.
Now we realize that transformer is an essential instrument of the electrical sector. The function of the transformer working principle is straightforward. The weight of the transformer is very high for its iron materials. The efficiency of the transformer is marked out. It works continuously 24 hours a day.