Transformers are the most common static electronic devices used in the electrical sector to voltage up and down power plants, generation and distribution centers, and various electrical devices. It can transfer high voltage AC to low voltage AC or the opposite of this process.
Many types of transformers are used in different electrical and electronics works. Some of them are big, and some of them are small. In 1831, Michael Faraday invented the first electric transformer, but it could not meet the demand. After a few years, commercial transformers were successfully invented.
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How Does a Transformer Work?
There are many types of transformers, such as step-up, step-down, isolation transformer, etc. Different types of transformers are used for various purposes. Transformers are specially designed for the differential of voltage range equity.
A transformer mainly works on Faraday’s EMF induction or mutual induction law. It can ups or down the voltage to the second terminal from the primary terminal. A transformer whose primary coils turn number is greater than the secondary coils turn number is called a step-down transformer.
A step-up transformer is the opposite of this function. This transformer changes the voltage level between the sites without changing the frequency. Three phage transformers work on the same basis.
Transformer Basics and Transformer Principles
The basic working principle of a transformer is straightforward. It works on Faraday’s induction law. It can change the AC voltage, not the DC. AC flux is required for mutual induction between the primary and secondary windings.
It is astonishing that the two terminals of a transformer are not connected with a physical wire. It transfers the current from one source to another source with an electromagnetic force (EMF). The primary windings are connected with an AC source, and the secondary windings are connected with the load.
The transformers working principle depends on its windings turn number. A step-up transformer converts from the high current with low voltage to the high voltage with low current. The step-down transformer converts an opposite of this process. Both of these processes aren’t changing the frequency.
Simple Definition Of Transformer Rules
Some common alphabetical numbers define transformer equations. All of these definitions are explained below for easy access to the basics of how it works.
- N1 = Primary coil turns number
- N2 = Secondary coil turns number
- V1= Primary voltage
- V2= Secondary voltage
- I1= Primary current
- I2= Secondary current
- E1= Primary electromagnetic force. (–N1 (dφ/dt))
- E2= Secondary electromagnetic force. (–N2 (dφ/dt)
- ϕ = Change of flux
N dϕ/dt is an equation that defines the flux changing range between the two windings of a transformer. Here the primary windings turn number (N1) is proportional to the primary electromagnetic force (E1). And the secondary windings turn number (N2) is proportional to the secondary electromagnetic force (E2).
- E1 ∞ N1
- E2 ∞ N2
The Ratio of a Transformer
Transformer works with some principle of the ratio. These are elaborate below:
If, N1 > N2 and E2 < E1 or V2 < V1 = It is a step-down transformer.
If, N2 > N1 and E1 < E2 or V1 < V2 =It is a step-up transformer.
Here is E2/E1 = N2/N1 or E1 ∞ N1 & E2 ∞ N2
This picture shows that the single wire EMF flux during the flow of the current.
Transformer Losses And DC Connection
If the DC is applied in the primary windings, the transformer may damage or fail to its working efficiency for the overheating. Because the resistance of the primary winding is very low, and it can not carry the high current from the DC source.
So, primary current=DC applied voltage/Resistance of primary winding.
There have two kinds of loss of a transformer. These are losses of copper (eddy current and hysteresis) and core (resistance of the windings).