There are different types of a capacitor we use in different circuits. The capacitor has 250 years of history from the present time. The capacitor is a small device. It is mainly used as a rechargeable storage device. It can storage charges. There are many kinds of capacitors invented for different uses. Modern electronic components are used capacitors.
Table of Contents
Types Of A Capacitor
This blog will describe some of the important capacitors information in this blog. Some of the important capacitors lists are given below.
Types of capacitors:
- Electrolytic Capacitor
- Dielectric Capacitor
- Mica Capacitor
- Variable Capacitor
- Nonpolarized Capacitor
- Ceramic Capacitor
- Paper Capacitor
- Film Capacitor
The whole of this kind of capacitors details is given below step by step.
Electrolytic capacitors are generally used where required a large amount of capacitance. Such capacitors use a semi-liquid solution jelly or paste as an electrolyte, used as the second electrode (usually the cathode). The majority of these kinds of capacitors are polarized.
That means the positive terminal is connected with the positive source, and the negative terminals connect with the negative source.
If connected with an opposite, the polarization will break down and permanently damage this capacitor. DC voltage must be applied to the correct terminal of this capacitor to get the correct polarity.
These types of polarized electrolytic capacitors are marked with negative and positive signs. This is used in DC power supply circuits to get a large capacitance and reduce the ripple voltage or used in coupling and decoupling applications.
Electrolytic Capacitors are divided into two types. Here are given the details of the Aluminium & Tantalum electrolytic capacitor below.
Aluminum Capacitor: Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are of two types. One is Plain Foil, and another is Etched Foil. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are a high range capacitance value for their size. Foil plates are anodized with the DC.
This process indicates the side of these plates, positive and negative. The etched foil is different from the plain foil. Aluminum oxide is chemically etched in the etched foil to increase its surface area and permittivity.
Etched foil gives a small size capacitance than plain foil. The typical range of Aluminium electrolytic capacitors is 1uF up to 47,000uF.
Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitor: Two types of talcum capacitors are available in the market. One is wet, and another is dry. Thereof them, the dry is the most common capacitor. This type of capacitor is physically smaller than equivalent aluminum capacitors.
The dielectric properties of the talcum capacitors are the best than the aluminum electrolytic capacitors because it ensures the stability of lower leakage current and makes suitable use of blocking, by-passing, decoupling, filtering, and timing applications.
If tantalum capacitors are polarised, they can be more tolerant than the aluminum capacitors but given the rating at lower working voltages. The solid tantalum capacitors are usually used when the AC voltage is smaller than the DC voltage. The typical range of Tantalum electrolytic capacitors is 47nF to 470uF.
Generally, the dielectric capacitor is a continuous variable type capacitor. Transmitters are used as a receiver, transmitters, and transistor devices. It is also used as a tuning device of radio. These dielectric capacitors are constantly changing, that is, changing the distance between the stator van and the rotor van to create a radio tune.
When the distance between the stator van and the rotor van is the shortest, the capacitance is usually the highest—the greater the distance or, the greater the air gap, the lower the capacitance value. High dielectric voltage capacitors have wide gaps or air gaps between the two plates which can cause breakdown voltages to reach thousands of volts.
The mica capacitors work in high temperature and high frequency. This capacitor is chemically, electrically, and mechanically stable. There are two kinds of mica capacitors. One is clamped capacitors & another is silver mica capacitors.
The clamped capacitor is not used for its inferior characteristics. But the silver mica capacitor is made by sandwiching a mica sheet. It is used in epoxy to protect the environment.
The variable capacitor is nonpolarized. The typical range of variable capacitors is 500pF or less. Variable capacitors are usually small devices, which can be set by adjusting a certain capacitance value with the help of a screwdriver.
Plastic foil capacitors and nonpolarized electrolytic capacitors are combined to make a nonpolarized capacitor. AC signal is applied on parallel or in the series on the nonpolarized capacitor. Plastic foil is nonpolarized by nature.
The ceramic capacitor is used as a decoupling or by-pass capacitor because of its work against temperature and exhibits large non-linear changes in capacitance. This kind of device is also a nonpolarized device. Ceramic Capacitors are made from porcelain or ceramic disc with silver.
It contains a high dielectric constant (High-K). Generally, a three-digit code is printed on its body. The first digit defines the value of the capacitor, and the last digit defines the number of zero’s to be added. For example, a ceramic disc capacitor printed with 154.
That indicates 15 and 4 zero’s in pico-farads (pF), equivalent to 15,0000 pF, 150nF, or 0.15μF. Sometimes the letters J, K, and M indicate their tolerance.
Paper capacitors are made with two tinfoil sheets. Paper capacitors are made with two tinfoil sheets. The tin foils are separated from the oiled and waxed paper. Thin foil and paper are sandwiched and wrapped in plastic capsules.
Thin foils of the paper capacitors are connected with the external load. The typical range of paper capacitors is 0.001μF to 2.00uF, and the maximum voltage level is 2000V.
Film capacitors are relatively larger and more commonly used than other capacitors. Such capacitors differ in different dielectrics. Among them, Polyester (Mylar), Polystyrene, Polypropylene, Polycarbonate, Metallized Paper, Teflon, etc., are worth mentioning.
Considering its actual type and voltage rating, it is available in a capacitance range from 5pF to 100uF.
Film capacitors are made in different sizes and case styles, such as wrap and fill (oval and round), epoxy case (rectangular and round), metal hermetically sealed (rectangular and round), etc.
Plastic film capacitors are much more resilient than paper film capacitors because they work well even at high temperatures.
Its durability is very, very long lifespan and high reliability. There are two types of film capacitors. Rectangular metal film and cylindrical film. The type of foil is shown below:
Radial Lead Type
This type of capacitor used a much dielectric film to reduce the risk of tears or punctures in the film. For this reason, the value of capacitance is less and suitable for larger case sizes.
Axial Lead Type
This kind of capacitor is made from long thin strips. Thin strips are a component of dielectric material that sandwich together and wound into a tight roll, and then sealed in paper or metal tubes.
Several kinds of capacitors are used for several purposes. The proper use of the capacitor can play an essential role in the electrical sector. So, engineers should try to make appropriate use of it.