Voltage Dividers

All About Voltage Dividers (VD)

The Voltage Dividers are a fundamental circuit of electrical function. It is an easy circuit. It only works on the series connection. Voltage dividers use resistors to turn a high voltage into a lower voltage. This blog will help you know everything about the voltage divider.

What Is Voltage Divider?

A voltage divider is a fundamental circuit of the electrical sector that can divide the voltage in the series circuits. It can divide the voltage among the number of resistance based on the input current. Accumulation of all voltage drops is the same as the total voltage of the source.

How Do Voltage Dividers Work?

A voltage divider uses two series resistor and also an input voltage. Using a Voltage Divider, we can create the fraction of the input voltage as an output voltage. So, the leading working theory of a voltage divider circuit is to turn a large voltage into a smaller one.

Circuit Diagram of Voltage Divider

The circuit of the voltage divider is straightforward to recognize. There are two kinds of voltage dividers. One is the output under load, and another is under no load. Both of the circuit diagram details are given below:

Circuit Diagram of Voltage Divider
Voltage Divider Circuit Diagram

In the open circuits, the current flows positive towards negative. The voltage is defined as V1. In the open circuits, R1 and R2  are connected with a series connection.

There is no limit to the connection. Circuits can be made by adding as many resistors as you want. Adding more resistance increases the voltage drop. Here the output of R1 and R2 is open.

In the loaded circuit, the current flows positive towards negative. The voltage is defined as V1. In the loaded circuit, R2 and RL  are connected with parallel connections. This parallel connection is again connected in class with R1. Here the output of R1 and R2 are connected with a load of RL.

Output Voltage Under No Load

Here the circuit is not connected with the load. If it is connected with the load, then increase the voltage drop. we can calculate the voltage drop of each resistance by a formula. Circuits can be made by adding as many resistors as you want. Then it is defined as R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,… The formula is given below:

Voutput V1*R2 / (R1+R2)

In this formula, the voltage and the last resistance are multiplied. And it is divided by the sum of the total resistance. Below this picture contains two resistance, which is R1 and R2.

Voltage Dividers Output Voltage Under No Load
Voltage Dividers Output Voltage Under No Load

Example: Here the is V1= 12v. R1 and R2 are 3Ω and 6Ω. Calculate the output voltage(V2).

Solve: V1= V* (R1/ R1+R2)= 12*(3/9)= 4v

and V2= V* (R2/ R1+R2)= 12*(6/9)= 8v

Output Voltage Under Load

Here the circuit is connected with the load. If it is not connected with the load then decrease the voltage drop. we can calculate the voltage drop of RL by a formula. Circuits can be made by adding as many resistors as you want. Then it is defined as R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6,… The formula is given below:

Voltage Dividers Output Voltage Under Load
Voltage Dividers Output Voltage Under Load

In this circuit, R2 and RL are connected with a parallel connection. R1 and the sum of R2+RL are connected with a series connection. This circuit is calculated in two steps for easily getting. On the first, calculated the parallel connection and then calculated the series connection of voltage drop. An example is given below:

Example: Here, the is V1= 10v. R1, R2, and RL are 4Ω, 2Ω and 3Ω. Calculate the output voltage of RL.

Solve: According to the parallel connection,RP= (R2* RL)/ (R2+RL)= (2*3)/ (2+3)= 6/5Ω

Now the current flow (I^) between R1 and 6/5Ω is, I^=  V /(R1+6/5)= 10/(4+6/5)= 25/13

I= I^ * R2/ (R2+RL) (Opposite resistance/ sum of resistance)

= (25/13) * 2/(2+3)

=10/13

This is the absolute value of RL

Uses of Voltage Divider

Voltage divider uses for various purposes in the sector of electricity. Some of the important uses are given below:

  • The measure of high voltage current and used to compensate for capacitive voltage.
  • Make adjustments to the signal of the current.
  • Uses to make the Multimeter and Wheatstone.
  • Work as signal attenuators.
  • Uses in the low frequencies and DC connections.
  • It is also used in power transformers.

Advantages And Disadvantages of Voltage Dividers

A voltage divider has an advantage and disadvantages. Now it describes in below:

Advantages: The main advantage of the voltage divider is to give compensation for the current flow. It has fewer voltage drops and provides DC with independence. The installation of the voltage divider is straightforward.

Disadvantage: When it works its become hot and loses its working efficiency. It is often spoiled.

The voltage divider is an essential device for decreasing the voltage to the source. Many electrical devices work at a low voltage; the voltage divider ensures this voltage. Although it has some restrictions, it works continuously. It is the benediction of the electric sector.

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About the Author: Mehedi Hasan

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