Voltage regulation is the ability of a transformer to maintain a constant voltage level despite variations in the load. It is measured by the output voltage ratio to the real load.
So, what is voltage regulation?
This article explains what voltage regulation is, then looks at how you can determine the correct size of the voltage regulator and how to choose the correct voltage regulator type.
Table of Contents
What Is Voltage Regulator?
A Voltage Regulator (Voltage Reg) is an electric power circuit that regulates the voltage between the terminals of a rectifier. The bottom/Fixed terminal becomes a constant potential, as much as 6% higher than the top/Free terminal.
The non-linear voltage regulator can be a bunch of diodes connected in series to increase the output voltage, or it can be a single three-terminal tube or transistor-based device with discrete components.
Transformer Voltage Regulation Explained
As the AC voltage from the wall socket varies, the transformer’s primary winding will generate an output voltage. Due to the primary inductance and resistance of the transformer’s primary & secondary windings, this output voltage will develop some ripple. This effect in a transformer is called – transformer voltage regulation.
How Does Voltage Regulation Work?
Voltage regulation is the process of a transformer changing incoming voltage fluctuations to an output voltage that more accurately follows the input voltage. This is important for a transformer because it prevents the output from sagging or “browning out” when there are significant changes in input voltages.
Voltage Regulation Applies
Voltage regulation is used when electrical power cannot be controlled to vary above and below the set standard voltage of 115 Volts or 240 Volts. This causes fluctuations in the output voltage and current, which will lead to noise levels in audio equipment or televisions.
If the main supply voltage is too low, then the voltage at the output terminals of the transformer will also be below. This is not a problem for most electrical appliances designed to accept both high and low-voltage input.
If the voltage is too high, it can damage equipment. For example, if you try to operate a 110V appliance with a 220V supply, you may blow a fuse or damage equipment. So, this variation in voltage must be kept to a minimum.
Voltage regulation is an important industry term that refers to the ability of a transformer to control voltage output and its primary function of stepping up or stepping down voltage swings.