Voltage Regulator

What Is Voltage Regulator? Voltage Regulator Study

A voltage regulator is an electronic device used to maintain the ideal voltage to the load from the source of irregular voltage. Several electronic devices are designed for several voltages. If the device gets over the prescribed voltage, then it may damage. For preventing damage or any accident voltage regulator is used in the electric motherboard or circuit.

The working efficiency and the longevity of the voltage regulator are unquestionable. Now this time, all of the electronic devices are using voltage regulators. This blog will describe the whole of the information about the voltage regulator.

What is Voltage Regulator?

A voltage regulator is an electrical semiconductor device component that can control the AC and DC voltage between the source and the load. It ensures sustainable voltage to the load connections. The switching rate of the voltage regulator is 50-200 times per second.

In most cases, the voltage regulator works as a variable resistance. It works based on the load. If the load is heavy, the resistance decreases, and the resistance works as opposite if the load is lighter.

The voltage regulator will maintain the constant output voltage in two conditions. The one is the change in input, but the output remains constant. And the second one is the load changes. It will change the load but still, the output remains constant.

To maintain the constant output voltage, we are using the voltage regulator. It will provide the constant voltage respective of change in the input signals or change in the load resistance.

Types of Voltage Regulator

There are two types of voltage regulators. The first one is the Linear Regulator. And the second one is the Switching Regulator. Two of the regulator works for different purposes.


  • Linear regulator
  • Switching regulator

Circuit Diagram of a Voltage Regulator

We used the voltage regulator to get the fixed voltage in the output from the irregular voltage of the source. It could be 5 volts, 9 volts, 12 volts, or any number of voltages of aspects. Almost all the voltage regulator has three points. One is connected with the source called input, one is with the load called output, and one is with the ground; it’s called neutral. The primary function of the voltage regulator is to maintain the constant output voltage.

The circuit diagram of a voltage regulator is very easy if you understand it. The first time, it seems to be a little bit abstruse, but you will get it quickly by the time. There are many kinds of voltage regulators. Depending on the type of regulation and connection the voltage regulators are classified in many ways.

Such as Line, Load, Zener, Transistor Series, Transistor Shunt, IC, Fixed Negative, and many other voltage regulators. Now I describe the basic circuit construction of the Transistor Series voltage regulator diagram.

Transistor Series Voltage Regulator

Here is the formula of the voltage regulator is, Vo=Vz+Vbe. By this formula, we can calculate this regulator’s input and output voltage.


  • Vz= Constant
  • Vo= Remains constant
  • R= Resistance

Working Principle of a Voltage Regulator

Voltage regulators are used in various ways in the electrical sector. Many electrical devices are voltage sensitive. It does not work or can be damaged if the voltage above its maximum recommended voltage is applied. But the electric voltage source does not stay on a fixed voltage. It always goes with the ups and downs. So that time needs to a fixed voltage for the devices. A voltage regulator can supply the asking voltage to the devices from the source. The working principle of the voltage regulator is straightforward.

I describe it before that a voltage regulator passes a certain voltage to the load. For example, the output of a 5-volt voltage regulator is always 5-volts no matter what voltage is there in the input voltage. If the input voltage is 10, it passes 5 volts to the output.

When the neutral parts of a voltage regulator get a signal from the source, it permits passings the current to the output. Extra voltage passes out to the source by the neutral parts of a voltage regulator when unnecessary voltage increases and maintains the equality of the voltage to the output.

Uses of a Voltage Regulator

Voltage regulators are considered one of the most important components of an electronic circuit. Voltage regulators are used for the safe conduction and consistent operation of the circuit. There are different types of voltage regulators depending on the type of work.

Very high voltage regulators are used in heavy equipment such as high voltage power transformers with power ratings. Moreover, these are used in electrical power circuit boards, like computers, radio, ovens, fridges, or other electric devices.

Pros and Cons of Voltage Regulator

Although voltage regulators have many uses in the electrical sector, it has some disadvantage. Some of the advantage and disadvantage of the voltage regulator is given below:


  • Performs better than a mechanical voltage regulator.
  • Works restlessly without trouble.
  • Output voltage performance is better.
  • The isolation line is good.
  • Output voltage correction speed is good, and no restrictions on the voltage correction cycle.


  • Sometimes, the output is not accurately constant and creates a different temperature to decrease Vbe and Vz.
  • It troubles to change the output voltage because it has not provided any options to change it.
  • It has a little bit expensive than a mechanical voltage regulator.

Voltage regulator is a small device,s but it has contributed a lot to the electrical sector. It has used many purposes. Many kinds of voltage regulators are invented now this time. Although it has some restrictions, overall, it is a great device to use accurately.


About the Author: Mehedi Hasan

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